Heliopolis (Ancient Greek: “City of the Sun” or “City of Helios”; Egyptian: Iunu, “Place of Pillars”; Arabic: ʿĒn Šams, “Eye of the Sun”) was one of the oldest cities of ancient Egypt, the capital of the 13th Lower Egyptian nome. It is now found at the north-east edge of Cairo.
The ancient Egyptian cult center Junu, in biblical Hebrew referred to as Ôn (אן) or Āwen (און), and to “On” in ancient Greek in the Hebrew bible, was renamed Heliopolis by the Greeks in recognition of the fact that the sun god Ra (Helios in Greek) presided there. Junu is mentioned in the Pyramid Text as the “House of Ra”.
Iunu was also the original source of the worship of the Ennead pantheon that was believed to be headed by the local sun-god Atum, with whom Ra was merged. Although in later times, as Horus gained in prominence, worship focused on…
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